The territory of Ukraine is characterized by uniqueness of physic-geographical and geological conditions, which favored formation of great scopes of natural resources and their variety. Land and mineral resources are the most valuable among the natural resources.
According to the specialist’s estimation, a quarter of the world black soil is concentrated in the territory of Ukraine.
Ukrainian black soil is unique. It was formed under steppe vegetation under the conditions of climate which is the mildest and the most humid compared to the Eurasia steppe. Based on its physical, chemical, agrochemical and mineral composition, Ukrainian black soil is deemed as the best one among the soil-forming materials. Based on the quality soil composition and efficiency of lands, Ukraine is deemed as one of the richest states of the world.
In terms of soil mantle of Ukraine, the area of black soil is 60.4 million ha, 69% of which refer to agriculture lands, 78% in the structure of which refer to plow land.
The most important criteria of soil quality evaluation include humus content. Soil layer research showed that the average humus content of plow land of 3.2%. Soils with the highest humus content are concentrated in Kharkiv region – 4.9%, in Kirovohrad and Dnipropetrovsk regions – 4.5% in each.
According the scientist’s estimation, under the condition of optimal arrangement of land management and a corresponding level of farming, the country is able to feed 300-320 million people.
Ukraine is one of the leading world states, based on its richness in mineral resources. Occupying 0.4% of dry land, it holds 5% of the world reserves of mineral deposits.
Donbas is the main coal base of Ukraine. Donbas coal basin is located in the territory of Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Its total area is 60 thous. sq. km, and its coal reserves are valued as 109 billion tons.
Oil and natural gas are concentrated in Dnipro-Donetsk (80%) and the Black Sea and the Crimea oil and gas bearing regions.
Oil and gas fields on the continental shelf of the Black Sea and the Azov Sea are considered as promising in terms of development activities. There are 10-15% of own needs of Ukraine in oil and 25% of those in gas covered. 3 billion tons of turf and combustible shale have been developed.
Iron ore is deposited in Kryvyi Rig (18.7 billion tons), Kremenchuk (4.5 billion tons), Bilozersk (2.5 billion tons) and Kerch (1.8 billion tons) iron ore–bearing basins. The biggest deposits of black-iron ore in the world are located in Nikopol basin. Deposits of nickel, chromite, titan, cinnabar (2nd place in the world) and polymetal ore are estimated as large ones.
Ukraine takes a leading place in Europe and in the world based on deposits of non-metallic mineral resources. Ozocerite and native sulfur fields are the biggest ones in the world. Graphite deposits are the biggest ones on the European continent.
Fields of precious and semi-precious stones (beryl, amethyst, amber, jasper, rock crystal, morion, etc.) are also opened in the territory of the country. More than 15 gold fields were developed over the last years.