Transport system of Ukraine is represented by practically all kinds of ground (railway, automobile), water (sea, river), air (aviation, helicopter) and pipeline (oil, gas and ammonia pipelines, and transport of chemical substances) transport. Municipal transport is also developed.
Railway and automobile transport
Nowadays Ukraine has a developed railway network, operational length of the main gauges is 22,300 km including 9,978 km (44.7%) of gauges electrified. The gauge width is 1,520 mm; there are also narrow-gauge areas (most of them of 750 mm in width) and small border areas of the European standard (1,435 mm). The quantity of railway stations is 1,648 (126 main train stations).
At present the automobile transport system of Ukraine numbers more than 9.2 million vehicles, including the following: 6.9 million motor cars, 250 thousand buses, 1.3 million cargo trucks, more than 840 thousand items of motor transport. In general, almost 56 thousand shippers perform shipments at the market using more than 154 thousand vehicles.
Sea and river transport
The Black Sea, the Azov and Ukrainian Danube Steamship Lines, holding a transport fleet with the total cargo capacity of 5.2 million tons and a passenger fleet for 9.9 thousand places, form a base of sea transport of Ukraine. 18 ports comprising 175 trans-shipping complexes and 8 ship-repairing plants are located in the territory of Ukraine.
Internal navigable river ways of Ukraine mainly pass through Dnipro and Danube waters. The major water transport main of Ukraine is Dnipro waterway, through which cargo and passengers are carried. Dnipro navigable lines cross with road and rail mains and are included into the national network of international transport corridors. JSSC “Ukrrichflot” is the biggest shipping company on the river arteries. It includes Dnipro, Zaporizhzhia, Mykolaiv, Kherson and Chernihiv river ports with the total cargo-handling capacity of about 24 million tons.
The network of airlines and airports is quite developed in Ukraine. Some of them have an international status. The international lines connect Ukraine with the countries of Europe, America, Asia and Africa. Air transport carries annually more than 10 thousand passengers. Kyiv, Simferopol, Odesa, Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lviv are the biggest centres of air transport.
Pipeline transport in Ukraine is one of the most developed one and consists of two parts, namely gas pipeline and oil pipeline. The oil pipeline transport of Ukraine includes 12 main oil pipelines with the total length of about 3.0 thousand km. Oil pipeline network is represented by the trans-European pipeline “Druzhba”, the length of which in terms of Ukraine is 680 km. By this pipeline oil is transported from Russia through the territory of Ukraine to the countries of the Central Europe. The rest pipelines have national and international value and provide oil-refining plants of Ukraine with oil.
34 thousand km of main gas pipelines are laid along the territory of Ukraine. Ukraine extracts only 25% of consumed gas; the rest gas is purchased. There are also 12 gas-storage facilities with the total capacity of 35.3 billion m3 of gas built in Ukraine.